A battery separator is a polymeric membrane placed between the positively charged anode and negatively charged cathode to prevent an electrical short circuit. The separator is a microporous layer that is moistened by the electrolyte that acts as a catalyst to increases the movement of ions from one electrode to the other electrode. When the battery is charging the ions moves from cathode to anode and when the battery gets discharged the ions will move in the reverse direction. The separator controls the number of ions moving between the positive and negative terminal and hence it is responsible for the leakage of ions (self-discharge) when the battery is ideal. Although the ions pass through the separator freely it will not have any electrical conductivity and it always acts as an isolator.
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